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mindblowingscience:


Was Our Planet Really Once a Hell on Earth?

For the first 500 million years of its existence, our planet was believed to literally be a hell on Earth. But new research shows that this early Earth may have been surprisingly similar to the present day, complete with oceans, continents and active crustal plates.
This alternate view of Earth’s first geologic eon, called the Hadean, is based on a comparison of zircon crystals formed four billion years ago with those formed during the same time period in Iceland. This icy country is supposedly what early Earth geological conditions were like, and so serves as a sort of blueprint for scientists studying the beginnings of our planet.
"We reasoned that the only concrete evidence for what the Hadean was like came from the only known survivors: zircon crystals — and yet no one had investigated Icelandic zircon to compare their telltale compositions to those that are more than 4 billion years old, or with zircon from other modern environments," lead researcher Calvin Miller of Vanderbilt University said in a statement.
Until 30 years ago, scientists thought the Hadean period was hellishly hot, and Earth was covered by a giant “magma ocean.” This view was based on the fact that they could never find rock formations from that time period, jumping to the conclusion that the intense heat melted the rocks, leaving behind no trace.
But then geologists discovered zircon crystals - a mineral typically associated with granite - preserved in younger sandstones. Radiometric dating and other analytical techniques allowed the researchers to study early Earth’s crust via these four-billion-year-old crystals, as well as extract information about the environment in which the crystals formed, including the temperature and whether water was present.
And after comparing these crystals with about 1,000 ancient zircons sifted from volcano and sand samples off Iceland, the researchers found that Icelandic zircons grew from much hotter magmas than Hadean zircons.
Despite the assumption that Earth was insanely hot, their analysis revealed that at some points during the Hadean period Earth’s crust cooled enough so that surface water could form - possibly on the scale of oceans.
"Our conclusion is counterintuitive," said Miller. "Hadean zircons grew from magmas rather similar to those formed in modern subduction zones, but apparently even ‘cooler’ and ‘wetter’ than those being produced today."
The findings were published in the journal Earth and Planetary Science Letters.

mindblowingscience:

Was Our Planet Really Once a Hell on Earth?

For the first 500 million years of its existence, our planet was believed to literally be a hell on Earth. But new research shows that this early Earth may have been surprisingly similar to the present day, complete with oceans, continents and active crustal plates.

This alternate view of Earth’s first geologic eon, called the Hadean, is based on a comparison of zircon crystals formed four billion years ago with those formed during the same time period in Iceland. This icy country is supposedly what early Earth geological conditions were like, and so serves as a sort of blueprint for scientists studying the beginnings of our planet.

"We reasoned that the only concrete evidence for what the Hadean was like came from the only known survivors: zircon crystals — and yet no one had investigated Icelandic zircon to compare their telltale compositions to those that are more than 4 billion years old, or with zircon from other modern environments," lead researcher Calvin Miller of Vanderbilt University said in a statement.

Until 30 years ago, scientists thought the Hadean period was hellishly hot, and Earth was covered by a giant “magma ocean.” This view was based on the fact that they could never find rock formations from that time period, jumping to the conclusion that the intense heat melted the rocks, leaving behind no trace.

But then geologists discovered zircon crystals - a mineral typically associated with granite - preserved in younger sandstones. Radiometric dating and other analytical techniques allowed the researchers to study early Earth’s crust via these four-billion-year-old crystals, as well as extract information about the environment in which the crystals formed, including the temperature and whether water was present.

And after comparing these crystals with about 1,000 ancient zircons sifted from volcano and sand samples off Iceland, the researchers found that Icelandic zircons grew from much hotter magmas than Hadean zircons.

Despite the assumption that Earth was insanely hot, their analysis revealed that at some points during the Hadean period Earth’s crust cooled enough so that surface water could form - possibly on the scale of oceans.

"Our conclusion is counterintuitive," said Miller. "Hadean zircons grew from magmas rather similar to those formed in modern subduction zones, but apparently even ‘cooler’ and ‘wetter’ than those being produced today."

The findings were published in the journal Earth and Planetary Science Letters.

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mynameschai:

iguanamouth:

current emotion: any picture of spike the dinosaur from land before time

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That’s me

(via satans--butthole)

The demons wanted my penis.
— David Berkowitz- explaining why the demons wanted him. (via dahm-its-jeff)

(via paradeofflesh)

nativefaces:

Hatuey is a native American hero. One of the first native to rebel against the savage Europeans. This unfortunately cost his life as he was burned at the stake alive.when given one last chance to accept Jesus he told the priest “I rather go to hell”
learn more about the Legend of Hatuey:  http://www.historyofcuba.com/history/oriente/hatuey.htm

nativefaces:

Hatuey is a native American hero. One of the first native to rebel against the savage Europeans. This unfortunately cost his life as he was burned at the stake alive.when given one last chance to accept Jesus he told the priest “I rather go to hell”

learn more about the Legend of Hatuey:  http://www.historyofcuba.com/history/oriente/hatuey.htm

The United States of America on college education
  • Student: I'm not going to go to college because I don't want to go into debt.
  • USA: YOU USELESS PIECE OF SHIT. YOU'RE GOING TO AMOUNT TO NOTHING YOU FUCKING SCUMBAG. YOU'RE THE REASON WHY MY TAXES ARE SO HIGH.
  • Student: I'm just going to attend a small community college instead.
  • USA: HAHAHA YOU WERE TOO STUPID TO GET INTO A GOOD UNIVERSITY. ENJOY YOUR MCDONALD'S DIPLOMA.
  • Student: I attended a four year university and received a diploma in a field I am interested in. Now I am $50,000+ in debt.
  • USA: YOU DUMBASS. WHY THE FUCK DID YOU GO TO COLLEGE WHEN YOU KNOW YOU COULDN'T AFFORD IT? YOU DIDN'T EVEN CHOOSE A USEFUL MAJOR EITHER. GOD PEOPLE LIKE YOU MAKE ME SICK.
tayloroo:

Thurston Moore, 1987 by Dave Markey

tayloroo:

Thurston Moore, 1987 by Dave Markey

(via missbonesjangle)

(via h0odrich)

gaywrites:

Remember that online fundraiser to build a pro-LGBT billboard in the Westboro Baptist Church’s hometown? It worked. Feast your eyes on the “God Loves Gays” billboard, standing proud in Topeka, Kansas for all to see. If any additional funding comes through, it will be used for bus ads in Topeka, donations to LGBT youth organizations, and possibly a similar billboard in Utah. Bless. (via the Huffington Post)

(via jean-valgina)

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